The Westminster Assembly & Instrumental Music In Public Worship

Instrumental Music in Public Worship: History Surrounding the Westminster Assembly

FROM: “INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN THE PUBLIC WORSHIP OF THE CHURCH”

By John L. Girardeau (Still Waters Revival Books, [1888] 2000), pp. 132, 133.

Before the Westminster Assembly of Divines undertook the office of preparing a Directory of Worship, the Parliament had authoritatively adopted measures looking to the removal of organs, along with other remains of Popery, from the churches of England. On the 20th of May, 1644, the commissioners from Scotland wrote to the General Assembly of their church and made the following statement among others: “We cannot but admire the good hand of God in the great things done here already, particularly that the covenant, the foundation of the whole work, is taken, Prelacy and the whole train thereof extirpated, the service-book in many places forsaken, plain and powerful preaching set up, many colleges in Cambridge provided with such ministers as are most zealous of the best reformation, altars removed, the communion in some places given at the table with sitting, THE GREAT ORGANS AT PAUL’S AND PETER’S IN WESTMINSTER TAKEN DOWN (emphasis added), images and many other monuments of idolatry defaced and abolished, the Chapel Royal at Whitehall purged and reformed; and all by authority, in a quiet manner, at noon-day, without tumult.”1 So thorough was the work of removing organs that the “Encyclopaedia Britannica” says that “at the Revolution most of the organs in England had been destroyed.”2

When, therefore, the Assembly addressed itself to the task of framing a Directory for Worship, it found itself confronted by a condition of the churches of Great Britain in which the singing of psalms without instrumental accompaniment almost universally prevailed. In prescribing, consequently, the singing of psalms without making any allusion to the restoration of instrumental music, it must, in all fairness, be construed to specify the simple singing of praise as a part of public worship. The question, moreover, is settled by the consideration that had any debate occurred as to the propriety of allowing the use of instrumental music, the Scottish commissioners would have vehemently and uncompromisingly opposed that measure. But Lightfoot, who was a member of the Assembly, in his “Journal of its Proceedings”3 tells us: “This morning we fell upon the Directory for singing of psalms; and, in a short time, we finished it.” He says that the only point upon which the Scottish commissioners had some discussion was the reading of the Psalms line by line.

ENDNOTES:

1. Girardeau cites this quotation from the Acts of Assembly of the Church of Scotland, 1644.

2. Girardeau cites Art., Organ.

3. Girardeau cites Works, Vol. xiii., pp. 343, 344; London, 1825.

For information about the Puritans, including free and discounted Puritan books, Puritan MP3s, Puritan digital downloads, and Puritan videos, as well as the Puritan Hard Drive, please visit Still Waters Revival Books at .

The Perfect Instrument For Kids

Music is the most essential part of a child’s education. Early introduction to music will cherish a life long enjoyment of singing, playing, and listening. Ukuleles for kids are the perfect instruments because of the following reasons.

Perfect size: The ukulele fits in the child’s hands. It’s exactly proportionate to a child. This will make feel that the instrument is theirs.

Easy to learn: Any child who is learning the violin knows the anxiety of practice time. It takes several months for a child to produce pleasant sounding tunes. This can be rather discouraging for the child and the parent. On the other hand, the ukulele, is much easier for the beginners. Most of the children can strum a chord or two within a few minutes.

Sing and Play at the same time: Being adults, many of us are ashamed of singing and become nervous. Children never have such a problem and they always love to sing. If you teach them to play a wind instrument, it will prevent them to sing. Even piano is too loud and can overwhelm the child’s voice. If you give a child a ukulele, they will start strumming and singing before you come to know.

A child can relate to it: Ukuleles for kids look like a mini-guitar. Kids tend to imitate their favorite stars and instantly take to the ukulele. Kids will be familiar with the ukulele from the cartoons they watch on television. As soon, you give your kids a ukulele, they will be striking and strumming like a rock-star.

Easily transferable skills: Though many people become ukulele players for the whole life, it’s quite obvious that your child will want to play other instruments. Skills that you gain by playing the ukulele can be transferred smoothly to the other stringed instruments, like the violin and guitar.

Cheap: Children is never careful with their instrument. You must not worry about a ukulele. They are cheap to replace and yet they are very hardy instruments.

Ukulele is fun: It’s very rare that the child playing an ukulele and the audience is not enjoying it. There is something in the ukulele that brings instant joy to the everyone around. Most children can pick up the basic chords in the first lesson. From there, they will eventually learn how to play the entire songs or the simple strum patterns. Ukuleles for kids is an opportunity to learn the fundamental concepts of music. These concepts will help a child in advance on the ukulele or any other instrument if she or he chooses to switch later.

Instrumental Music Way To Healthier Life

Are you looking for something that will reduce your stress?
Do you want to say good bye to all your worries and relax your mind?
Have you heard about instrumental and its benefits for soothing your mind?
Well, the science of mediation is one of the most enlightened ways of Vedas. Meditation has been used from ancient times in the treatment of various health conditions like relieving high blood pressure, reducing chronic pain and stress level, sharpening the mind, etc. it is also beneficial to address several respiratory conditions.

Yoga music helps in overall well being as well as mental and physical health. The meditation music therapy is supposed to work on different chakras, which are connected with different organs. In our day-to-day life, we find that not all the seven chakras are active all the time. Lack of energy power is the simple reason behind this. The meditation and yoga music activate the chakras and provides energy for them. Thus, this music provides your body with energy required for mental and physical balance. It enlightens the brain and activates all the nerves in the brain.

Instrumental music is a musical composition or recording without lyrics or singing. There are different types of meditation music that directly influence our energy systems. Yoga music helps you through a powerful process of self-realization. It is beneficial for the individual to achieve a greater sense of overall well being while enabling them to become more confident.

Yoga Music has different categories like Kundalini yoga music, Sanskrit mantras, high-energy grooves, instrumental yoga music etc. It is a union to support the body, mind and spirit. The most common and simplest form of meditation can be accomplished with Yoga Music. You need to sit quietly. Now concentrate totally on your breathing system. With ambient music, you can pay attention on Atmosphere, Posture, Attitude and Elements. Ambient music is subtle instrumental often used as background music. It concentrates more on sound than melodic form. Ambient nature sounds have the ability to reduce stress, aid sleep, and provide a soothing atmosphere for activities such as meditation, yoga and tai-chi.

Ambient music and instrumental therapy can be used in many settings. Many people use this music to help them relax deeply and fall asleep. It is used mostly during yoga class or a massage session. This music is beneficial for meditation and deep breathing exercises. Mediation and yoga music plays an important role in our day-to-day life. Through experimentation, one can find out the impacts of sounds he or she has on your emotions and moods. As environment and our life experiences are full of diversity, every individual reacts distinctly to the various natural sounds. Discover multiple benefits offered by soothing instrumental music tracks that can be downloaded at our site. Meditating music provides an opportunity to enjoy benefits of yoga music in easier, faster and effective way. Get ready to feel the difference with us now. For more information to visit us

Testing instrument manufacturer 2

Testing instrument manufacturer As the name indicates testing it is an assessment intended to measure the respondents or to check the abilities of the material which has been under taken for testing, and testing instruments which are developed and manufactured by the Ducom company is one of the best testing instruments developers across the world. Most of the academies and industries are using our ducom testing or measuring instruments. In order to verify the present condition of a machine or materials which are under taken for testing these instruments are very helpful. More than 2000 laboratories use our testing instruments for their research and projects across the global. Ducom manufactures the test instruments on which you can have trust for high technologies and for robust designs. And research and development groups are working on the same house of new and innovative technologies and for the test methods to bring the state of art characterization techniques to research labs, academies and for the industries. Ducom has few advantages like it has no capital investments on expertise, less man power requirement, no training requirements, no maintenance costs, it has excellent security and reporting. And we understand all kind of test requirements requested by the customers and we offer much innovative test option for fulfilling the requirements of the customers, such as: Standard tests Basic development tests Intermediate development tests Advanced development tests Ducom manufactured products by application are: Abrasion (two & three body): It is the Wearing down or rubbing away or removal of the superficial layers of the solid surface by friction against another rough surface. Pin/Ball on Disk Tribometers Two Body Abrasion Tribometer Abrasion Tester Fretting Wear Tribometer Reciprocating Friction Monitor (Automotive) Multi Specimen Tribometer Erosion: It is the gradual destruction or reduction in the size, extent or the Wearing away of the solid surface. Slurry Erosion Tribometer Air Jet Erosion Tribometer Slurry Jet Erosion Tribometer Surface, Coatings and Bulk Scratch Tribometer Ball Indentation Hardness Tribometer Fretting Wear Tribometer Bio-tribology: It is the study of Friction, Wear and Lubrication within the body. Ring on Plate Wear Tribometer Fretting Wear Tribometer Pin on Disk Tribometer Tribo-Corrosion: It is the material degradation process due to the combined effect of corrosion and wear. Fretting Wear Tribometer Pin on Disk Tribometer Lubricant & Fuels Four Ball Tribometer OK Load Tribometer (Timken OK Load) Lubricant Load Bearing Capacity Tribometer Fatigue Roller on Roller Tribometer Rotating Beam Fatigue Tribometer Thermal Cycling Furnace Bearings Journal Bearing Demonstration Apparatus High Load, High Speed Journal Bearing Tester Oscillatory Journal Bearing Tribometer For more information on Testing instrument manufacturer you can visit

Beautiful Conway Stewart pens are timeless writing instruments

If you are one of those people who like to take your time and put pen to paper then you will now how important it is to have a good quality writing instrument. Not only will a good quality pen glide whilst you write, it will feel natural and comfortable in your hand as you do so. That is why if you are serious about writing you should consider a Conway Stewart pen. With expertise in pen manufacturing reaching over 100 years you really can be sure of Conway Stewart pens.

Conway Stewart pens first came about in 1905, the business was founded by Frank Jarvis and Thomas Garner. For the next 50 years the Conway Stewart pen company enjoyed much success manufacturing fountain pens in the UK. Unfortunately good luck ran out for Conway Stewart pens in 1975. The arrival of the popular ball point pen meant business all but dried up. But the UK had not seen the last of Conway Stewart. In the 1990s the company was revived and is now once more a successful writing instrument manufacturer. The Conway Stewart pen company now specialises in making highly desirable luxury writing instruments. Conway Stewart pens have now taken their place at the high end of the pen and writing instrument market.

Conway Stewart pens are fabricated out of the most marvelous materials that make each individual pen an art master piece. Materials used when crafting each pen include precious metals, fine enamels and celluloid. The Conway Stewart pen collections really must be seen at close hand so as to appreciate their true beauty. The craftsmanship and attention to detail really does take your breath away.

There are quite a few Conway Stewart pens to choose from. You can be guaranteed that whatever one you choose will make a superb gift. The Conway Stewart pen company has chosen to use a British theme with its collections. Each collection is named after a very famous historical figure. You will discover names such as Nightingale, Nelson, Darwin and Churchill in the Conway Stewart pens collections.

Each collection will often offer the choice of fountain pen, roller ball, conventional ball point pen and pencil. In each of the pen collections you will also be able to obtain different colour themes and effects. Naturally if choosing a fountain pen you can choose from a variety of nibs in 18 carat gold.

Why not take some time out to have a closer look at the writing instruments available in the Conway Stewart pen ranges. Write Here is a great place to start to find out more about Conway Stewart pens. Shrewsbury based Write Here have a fabulous website that really does showcase the beauty of each Conway Stewart pen collection.Write Here are a friendly team too, so feel free to contact them for any specific questions you have or advice you require. Write Here is a safe website to shop too, which means that you can safely use your debit or credit card.

Pictures Of Musical Instruments

There are hundreds of different kinds of musical instruments in the world. Almost every country has its own traditional music and musical instruments that have been developed over the centuries. Each musical instrument has its own melody, pitch, rhythm, timbre, loudness, and duration, as well as the notes and chords.

Musical instruments can be classified on the basis of the kind of instrument: chordophones (strings), aerophones (woodwinds and brasses), idiophones (percussion), and membranophones (drums). Stringed instruments or chordophones are those that produce sounds when a string is plucked or strummed. The kind of sound produced depends on the mass of the string, length of the vibrating portion of the string, tension in the string, and the point at which the string is strummed apart from the kind of resonating cavity in the instrument. Viola, violin, cello, guitar, mandolin, fiddle, harp, lute, banjo, balalaika, koto, ukulele, etc. are some of the string instruments.

Woodwinds and brasses generate music when air enters the instrument by blowing. This air vibrates inside the instrument in a particular frequency, thus producing sound. The kind of music depends on the method of tone production, the shape of the instrument, the length of the column of air in addition to the construction of the instrument. Flute, piccolo, clarinet, oboe, horn, mouth organ, saxophone, and bassoon are some of the winds instruments, while the French horn, tuba, trumpet, and trombone are brass instruments.

Percussion instruments produce sounds when struck. The size of the instrument along with the shape of the resonating cavity determines the sound produced. Some percussion musical instruments include the cymbals, the snare drum, bells, gong chime, xylophone, the bass drum, maracas, castanet and the timpani.

Drums include the goblet drums, the barrel drum, the frame drum, the tambourine, and the friction drum. Other kinds of musical instruments are the piano, keyboards, organ, harpsichord, and the Glockenspiel. Each of these musical instruments has sub-categories within them. Musical instruments can also be categorized on the basis of their playing levelssome are suitable for all kinds of players while some are meant only for beginners.

Pictures of musical instruments can be found at most music stores that sell musical instruments. Since musical instruments are selected based on the model, it is not possible to have all the models in the store. Hence, most dealers have pictures of some instruments to select from. Pictures are also found in advertisements and classifieds. There are several websites that have attractive and colorful pictures of musical instruments. They also feature exhaustive information about the product. Most of the pictures can also be downloaded on the computer, or they can be viewed online. Having these pictures helps the buyer to make a better choice when ordering the instrument. Pictures are especially useful for locating a particular kind or rare kinds of musical instruments.

Chaotic Melody Hip Hop Beats R&b And Rap Instrumentals All Genres

Chaotic Melody offers a service to artists, record executives, atc. who are looking for radio ready top quality beat and instrumental music online. Chaotic Melody is the #1 beat website to buy all of your Rap beats and Hip hop instrumentals. We also provide all genres in the form of R&B, Pop, Dance, Reggae, Rock, Dirty South, East Coast, West Coast, Underground, Jazz, Country, Pop Rock, Electro, Techno, Trap, Ballads, Film scores, etc.

There are three kinds of beats and instrumentals you can choose, Standard Lease, Premium lease, and Exclusive rights For the Standard, The downloadable MP3 audio file (320 kbps) quality. For the premium lease, The downloadable high quality WAV audio files (24 bit, 44.1 kHz). And with Exclusive rights you will recieve the stemmed out audio files. It is up to the customer to choose which type of music that he or she wants to receive. Exclusive rights gives you the best opportunity to alter the track to you.

When you have selected which beats you would like to buy from the Chaotic Melody Beat player, you then simply click the buy button and proceed onto the quick and easy pay pal checkout. At the pay pal checkout page you can either enter in your pay pal email address or you can simply pay with your credit card. Chaotic Melody does not accept cash or check, either pay pal or credit card are the best options for buying beats and instrumentals.

Any song that is made with a Chaotic Melody instrumental can be sold and distributed world wide and royalty free. Chaotic Melody still retains the rights and but the buyer who makes the song also retains rights as long as they give producer credit in the final project. All beats sold are professional quality.

When you order instrumentals from Chaotic Melody, the copyright for that instrumental still belongs to Chaotic Melody. However, the copyright for the track or multimedia that you make with that instrumental, your lyrics combined with that instrumental, belongs to you. And, with the rights granted by the Chaotic Melody license agreement, you are allowed to sell, distribute, perform and broadcast that finished track, keeping all of the publishing and mechanical royalties.

So be sure to stop by our one stop shop where we have Beats and instrumentals For sale.

How Much Do Instrumental Beats Cost

If you have been browsing online for different instrumental beats which you can use, you may be wondering if there is a set price for these. Well, instrumental beats can come in a variety of prices. Some are cheap while others are free. Meanwhile, there are also some beats that cost way too much.

Instrumental beats are very important to new and upcoming artists. It helps them have a unique beat for their music which enhances their song. If this is you, then you may be interested in knowing how instrumental beats are priced. In this article, you will learn more about that topic.

There are different factors that affect the price of the instrumentals. These factors are the complexity of the beat, where you purchased the instrumental and who made the rap beat. Here is a brief discussion of each.

1) Complexity of the Instrumental

The first factor that affects the price of the instrumental beat is the complexity. Some beats are created with simple tones while others use different kind of tones so as to increase the beat’s texture. If the beat maker took more time in creating their beat, then the price is usually set higher. It is that way for good reason. After all, complex instrumental beats usually sound better.

However, this does not mean that complexity immediately translates to better beats. The beats should also be created in such a way that it can go with most music and they are created while keeping the consumer in mind.

2) Where Are You Purchasing Your Instrumentals

Where you purchase your instrumentals can also affect its price. Usually, purchasing from websites are much cheaper compared to going straight to a famous producer. The price difference can be huge when dealing with online websites and producers in your city.

Also, they can cost less if they are purchased from a website where beats are sold in large amounts. This is cheaper when compared to purchasing from a website that doesn’t sell much. Just conduct a search and see if you can find some good, cheap instrumentals.

3) The Producer

This is perhaps the most important factor that affects the price of the rap beat. New instrumental beat makers charge considerably less compared with expert beat makers. In the same way, if the beat maker is more popular, then they can charge more. Usually, popularity is attained by creating good beats from the onset.

So if you are looking for some cheap instrumental beats, do not be afraid to try out some new beat makers. Who knows? You may find some diamond in the rough.

These are the factors that affect the price of instrumental beats. So the next time you found that nice beat and see that it costs more, it just shows that you get what you pay for. But if you are looking for cheaper beats, you can try searching for new but talented beat makers who can create unique beats for your songs.

Medical Instruments Part 3

Presenting an article discussing the different types of surgical instruments. HNM Medical releases articles describing in detail about medical procedures and medical instruments such as dilator, pessary, forceps and other medical tools.

Medical Instruments: Hurd Dissector Use: To Cut Info: Generally seen during surgery on the tonsils. A blunt retractor/dissector.

Medical Instruments: Jacob Tenaculum Use: To grasp Info: Common A clamp for grasping GYN.

Medical Instruments: Kerrison Ronguer Alias: Kerrison Punch Use: To cut the bone Info: To cut bone in spine & cranial surgery.

Medical Instruments: Key Elevator Use: To dissect

Medical Instruments: Klein Needle Use: Injection Info: Placed lipo fluid into the tissue to get the tissue for lipo suction.

Medical Instruments: K-Wire Cutter Use: To cut metal wires and K-wires.

Medical Instruments: Lambotte Osteotome Alias: Lambot Use: Dissection Info: Obtainable with both straight & curved at the tip. Often to take bone and hip grafts.

Medical Instruments: Grasper Alias: Debakey Grasped Use: Grasping Info: During laparoscopic surgery and for grabing the bowels.

Medical Instruments: Laparoscopic Trocar Use: Access for laparoscopic surgery. Info: The trocar is used for introduction of the port to the abdomen , but then removed to allow the instrument from the surgical instrument sets to be passed though.

Medical Instruments: Liposuction Cannula Alias: Lipo Cannula Use: To cut, mainly in saturated areas Info: Used to dissect and suction fat tissue during liposuction suction.

Medical Instruments: Curved Dissector Alias: Maryland Grasper, dolphin nose Use: Dissection Info: Used to dissect during cholecystomy surgery. Often is used to ligate vessels & is attached to a cautery cord.

Medical Instruments: Mayo-Hegar Needle Holder Alias: Needle Driver Use: To sutur Info: Available in a variety of sizes depending on the size of the needle to be used.

Medical Instruments: Metzenbaum Alias: Metz Use: Cutting Info: To cut tissue

Medical Instruments: Mouth gag extension Use: Postioning device Info: Mainly seen with patients with a bigger chest diameter, attaches to the Mayo stand.

Medical Instruments: Tongue Blade for Mouth Gag Use: Retraction Info: Attaches to the Davis Mouth gag to provide exposure for the tonsil procedure.

Are you interested in becoming a medical sales rep and work indepednetly? Then come to HNM Medical and see our independent medical representative application.

A “An Overview of Medical Instruments Part 2” article is by Tom O.

How To Make A Jingle Bells Instrument To Accompany Christmas Carols

Fun to make and a great accompaniment to the classic carol Jingle Bells, just shake to the beat. Who would have thought that rubbish and junk could sound so festive?

Al you need to make a jingle bells musical instrument is…
16 metal bottle caps, paint, brass nails, sandpaper, hammer and some scraps of wood.

First paint the out side of the bottle caps a nice metallic colour. Spray paint is quick and easy, but applying paint with a brush is just as good.

When the paint is dry, use a large nail and hammer to make a hole in the centre of each cap. Have the cap sitting face up as it would do on the bottle, that way the rough edges are created on the inside of the ‘bell’.

The bells are fixed to a piece of wood, roughly 2cm by 3cm and 28cm long. Give the wood a good sanding so that it doesn’t have any rough surfaces. You could paint or varnish the ‘handle’ if you wish to.
Working on one side of the handle at a time, attach the capes in pairs with the insides of the caps facing one another. Push a brass nail in the holes of the caps and offer it up to the wood.

Place the first set of bells 5cm away from the end. Don’t hammer the nail in too far into the wood. The bells need to move freely on the nail and clatter together.

The second set should be 8.5cm away from the end.

The third set should be 12cm away from the end.

Now turn the handle over to attach bells to the other side. Use scraps of wood to prop up each end of the handle so that it is clear off the workbench. Otherwise you will spoil the bells that you have already attached.

Add bells in pairs in the same way as you did on the other side, but this time the first set of bells 1.5cm away from the end. Add the other sets of bells so that they are level with the bells on the other side of the handle.

Then turn the handle over to attach the remaining set of bells. Again use scraps of wood to prop up the handle.

And there you have it, a set of jingle bells. Young children should be supervised when playing the jingle bells.

If you find it difficult to obtain bottle caps, you could ask an adult to approach a public house or bar, they have no use of the caps. You could also maybe write to a local brewery requesting some bottle caps. Alternatively look in the winemaking department of Boots or Wilkinsons for new bottle caps.